Setting Up a Static Site with Hugo and Push to Deploy

Let's Encrypt and Ansible, too!

Posted on Aug 8, 2018
Tags docker, lets-encrypt, ansible, hugo

For several years this blog was generated using the PHP static site generator Sculpin. I switched to Grav before deciding it was not for me. My blog does not contain dynamic data that requires PHP processing, and static HTML with JS is fine.

One of the issues I had with Grav was its requirement of both a PHP-FPM and Nginx/Apache service to properly serve content.

After researching available options, I decided to switch to the amazing Hugo.

Hugo has several benefits over other generators:

  • completely static output is generated from Markdown/HTML files,
  • a single Go binary with no outside dependencies, or a container can be used to generate static files,
  • tons of themes,
  • only requires a webserver for production deployment (Nginx/Apache)

Our goals

Today I will walk you through the complete process of setting up a static website that you can deploy new versions with a simple git push.

Pushing to your repo will trigger an automated build process that will generate minified HTML/CSS/JS files, package them in an Nginx image, add a new image to Docker Hub, deploy a new container on your host and automatically generate and maintain free SSL certificates using Let’s Encrypt.

The process outlined here is what I have created and use for this blog, jtreminio.com. Each new build and deployment currently takes around a few minutes and is completely automated.

The only prerequisite is you have Docker installed on your local machine. All other dependencies will be in Docker containers.

Technology and services used

We will configure and run several technologies, including:

  • Hugo for static site generator,
  • Ansible for configuring the server,
  • Docker for containers,
  • Traefik for routing traffic to correct container, and automatic SSL certificates,
  • Watchtower for keeping latest Docker image running on your site.
  • Let’s Encrypt for free, automated SSL certificate.

Everything that is used is completely free and open sourced, other than the host. If you are in need of a host I can recommend Digital Ocean 1. The basic $5/month plan will be more than enough. If you have your own host you would prefer to use, by all means use it!

Configure server

First we need to install Docker, Traefik and Watchtower on the server.

I have created a simple Ansible-based configuration that

  • installs Docker,
  • opens ports 80, 443 and 8080 on firewall (optional),
  • adds Traefik and configures Let’s Encrypt support,
  • creates a Watchtower container.

The only things you must configure are all handled by creating a .env file and filling out the following:

namedescription
SERVER_IPIP address of server
SSH_USERSSH username, “root” on Ubuntu
SSH_PRIVATE_KEYPath to SSH private key on your machine
LE_EMAILEmail to use for Let’s Encrypt

Run Ansible

You can start Ansible by running ./init in the root of the repo directory.

It will create an Ansible container on your local machine that will connect to and configure your defined remote servers.

The local Ansible container is removed once it finishes running.

If all goes well you should see something similar to

PLAY RECAP **********************************************
remote     : ok=8   changed=8   unreachable=0    failed=0

The important part is failed=0.

If you go to your blog’s URL you will see an invalid certificate warning.

This is fine! We have not actually created the blog container and Traefik has not generated an SSL certificate for it yet.

Setting up Hugo

Next we will get Hugo running on our local machine.

I have created a Hugo bootstrap repo that comes with some tools already added.

All you need to do is clone two repos:

git clone https://github.com/jtreminio/hugoBasicExample.git
cd hugoBasicExample
git clone https://github.com/nanxiaobei/hugo-paper.git \
    themes/hugo-paper

And you can start the Hugo server:

./bin/hugo-server

Now open http://localhost:1313/ and you will see a fully working Hugo blog.

Feel free to explore Hugo in more detail by visiting gohugo.io.

Manual deployment process steps

With a single command Hugo takes all your HTML/Markdown content and generates static files in /public.

You can see this process by running

./bin/hugo-publish

You will see your Markdown posts in HTML files, nested within directories that match your blog structure. Hugo also copies over all CSS/JS/etc files that are in your root /static or the theme’s.

You could take all this static content and deploy to production as-is, but we can run some minify tools to get the file sizes down.

Hugo does no post-processing and everything must be done by third-party tools. I have added a minify script that you can run with:

./bin/minify

It takes all HTML, CSS and JS files and minifies them down to a much smaller size.

Finally, you can run an Nginx container to make sure your site looks properly.

This local Nginx container will be exactly the same as what you deploy to production:

./bin/nginx

All these steps can be run manually, but that is a waste of time. Better to automate the process!

Docker multi-stage builds

Our end goal is to automate the 3 steps above and end up with a single, tiny image we can deploy to our production server (automatically).

Docker recently came out with multi-stage builds.

It means you can create a single Dockerfile with as many sequential stages as you need to generate a single, final image.

I have created a Dockerfile which takes the 3 steps above and runs through them. If you create the image on your computer you will end up with a single, tiny container at the end:

$ docker image build -t hugo-test .
Sending build context to Docker daemon  1.383MB
Step 1/17 : FROM alpine/git
 ---> 1e76d5809b62
Step 2/17 : COPY . /data
 ---> a473877e4ad9
Step 3/17 : WORKDIR /data
 ---> Running in 6e1b6e2796a4
Removing intermediate container 6e1b6e2796a4
 ---> 1fcaafec077f
Step 4/17 : RUN rm -rf themes/*
 ---> Running in 020d0c4f303f
Removing intermediate container 020d0c4f303f
 ---> 00a81909f7a0
Step 5/17 : RUN git clone https://github.com/nanxiaobei/hugo-paper.git themes/hugo-paper
 ---> Running in 4d7c71cd51ac
Cloning into 'themes/hugo-paper'...
Removing intermediate container 4d7c71cd51ac
 ---> 5e67ef78f4b8
Step 6/17 : FROM skyscrapers/hugo:0.46
 ---> 434ff241d9e8
Step 7/17 : COPY --from=0 /data /data
 ---> 3d27347872c5
Step 8/17 : WORKDIR /data
 ---> Running in f0875071a444
Removing intermediate container f0875071a444
 ---> ca8120476886
Step 9/17 : RUN hugo
 ---> Running in e2b6817fe000

                   | EN  
+------------------+----+
  Pages            | 12  
  Paginator pages  |  0  
  Non-page files   |  0  
  Static files     |  2  
  Processed images |  0  
  Aliases          |  0  
  Sitemaps         |  1  
  Cleaned          |  0  

Total in 15 ms
Removing intermediate container e2b6817fe000
 ---> cc2be3328f07
Step 10/17 : FROM mysocialobservations/docker-tdewolff-minify
 ---> 43c3688d88ad
Step 11/17 : COPY --from=1 /data/public /data/public
 ---> 144634f56841
Step 12/17 : WORKDIR /data
 ---> Running in 404cb0f24509
Removing intermediate container 404cb0f24509
 ---> d0a02742aa3c
Step 13/17 : RUN minify --recursive --verbose         --match=\.*.js$
                        --type=js         --output public/         public/
 ---> Running in 38f21d784856
INFO: use mimetype text/javascript
INFO: expanding directory public/ recursively
INFO: minify input file public/js/custom.js
INFO: minify to output directory public/
INFO: ( 68.167µs,   32 B,  49.2%, 954 kB/s) - public/js/custom.js
INFO: 3.055423ms total
Removing intermediate container 38f21d784856
 ---> d0d80a7d1ab1
Step 14/17 : RUN minify --recursive --verbose         --match=\.*.css$
                        --type=css         --output public/         public/
 ---> Running in 81e9840eb053
INFO: use mimetype text/css
INFO: expanding directory public/ recursively
INFO: minify input file public/css/style.css
INFO: minify to output directory public/
INFO: (389.209µs, 6.0 kB, 100.0%,  15 MB/s) - public/css/style.css
INFO: 3.797968ms total
Removing intermediate container 81e9840eb053
 ---> 80108c675341
Step 15/17 : RUN minify --recursive --verbose         --match=\.*.html$
                        --type=html         --output public/         public/
 ---> Running in d0c1c70b3e80
INFO: use mimetype text/html
INFO: expanding directory public/ recursively
INFO: minify 30 input files
INFO: minify to output directory public/
INFO: (283.292µs, 2.2 kB,  99.7%, 7.6 MB/s) - public/404.html
INFO: (192.584µs, 3.4 kB,  99.8%,  18 MB/s) - public/about/index.html
INFO: (286.917µs, 3.7 kB,  99.8%,  13 MB/s) - public/categories/development/index.html
INFO: (     68µs,  275 B, 100.0%, 4.0 MB/s) - public/categories/development/page/1/index.html
INFO: (219.375µs, 3.7 kB,  99.8%,  17 MB/s) - public/categories/golang/index.html
INFO: ( 56.709µs,  260 B, 100.0%, 4.6 MB/s) - public/categories/golang/page/1/index.html
INFO: (253.918µs, 2.7 kB,  99.8%,  11 MB/s) - public/categories/index.html
INFO: ( 56.625µs,  239 B, 100.0%, 4.2 MB/s) - public/categories/page/1/index.html
INFO: (272.709µs, 5.8 kB,  99.9%,  21 MB/s) - public/index.html
INFO: ( 68.126µs,  206 B, 100.0%, 3.0 MB/s) - public/page/1/index.html
INFO: (1.140128ms,  56 kB, 100.0%,  49 MB/s) - public/post/creating-a-new-theme/index.html
INFO: (487.084µs,  15 kB, 100.0%,  30 MB/s) - public/post/goisforlovers/index.html
INFO: (317.792µs, 5.8 kB,  99.9%,  18 MB/s) - public/post/hugoisforlovers/index.html
INFO: (252.542µs, 5.2 kB,  99.9%,  21 MB/s) - public/post/index.html
INFO: (349.251µs,  11 kB,  99.9%,  31 MB/s) - public/post/migrate-from-jekyll/index.html
INFO: (     77µs,  221 B, 100.0%, 2.9 MB/s) - public/post/page/1/index.html
INFO: (317.834µs, 3.8 kB,  99.8%,  12 MB/s) - public/tags/development/index.html
INFO: ( 80.792µs,  257 B, 100.0%, 3.2 MB/s) - public/tags/development/page/1/index.html
INFO: (351.584µs, 3.8 kB,  99.8%,  11 MB/s) - public/tags/go/index.html
INFO: ( 68.083µs,  230 B, 100.0%, 3.4 MB/s) - public/tags/go/page/1/index.html
INFO: (280.542µs, 3.8 kB,  99.8%,  14 MB/s) - public/tags/golang/index.html
INFO: ( 69.042µs,  242 B, 100.0%, 3.5 MB/s) - public/tags/golang/page/1/index.html
INFO: (255.334µs, 3.0 kB,  99.8%,  12 MB/s) - public/tags/hugo/index.html
INFO: ( 68.417µs,  236 B, 100.0%, 3.4 MB/s) - public/tags/hugo/page/1/index.html
INFO: (221.125µs, 3.7 kB,  99.8%,  17 MB/s) - public/tags/index.html
INFO: ( 81.125µs,  221 B, 100.0%, 2.7 MB/s) - public/tags/page/1/index.html
INFO: (198.083µs, 2.9 kB,  99.8%,  15 MB/s) - public/tags/templates/index.html
INFO: (118.167µs,  251 B, 100.0%, 2.1 MB/s) - public/tags/templates/page/1/index.html
INFO: (    242µs, 2.9 kB,  99.8%,  12 MB/s) - public/tags/themes/index.html
INFO: (  67.75µs,  242 B, 100.0%, 3.6 MB/s) - public/tags/themes/page/1/index.html
INFO: 112.866806ms total
Removing intermediate container d0c1c70b3e80
 ---> f31a796feec7
Step 16/17 : FROM nginx:alpine
 ---> 36f3464a2197
Step 17/17 : COPY --from=2 /data/public /usr/share/nginx/html
 ---> 5c0ffab7f6be
Successfully built 5c0ffab7f6be
Successfully tagged hugo-test:latest

Inside this single Dockerfile are 4 FROM sections. What Docker actually ends up doing is creating 3 intermediary images, and one final image. The final image contains nothing but what you explicitly COPY into it, and the end result is a tiny image:

$ docker image ls
REPOSITORY  <... snip ...>  SIZE
<none>      <... snip ...>  262MB
hugo-test   <... snip ...>  18.8MB
<none>      <... snip ...>  106MB
<none>      <... snip ...>  25.1MB

This tiny image is what we end up deploying to production. It contains Nginx and all the static, minified files.

You can test it yourself by running:

docker container run --rm -it -p 8080:80 hugo-test

and going to http://localhost:8080

Docker Hub Automated Builds

After you have played around a bit with Hugo, commit any changes you have made and push to a public repo on Github.

In our next steps we will get the Docker Hub to do the exact same process as above whenever we push a new change to Github.

If you do not yet have an account, create one at hub.docker.com.

We are now going to grant the Docker Hub to access our Github repos and add hooks.

This simply means whenever a commit is pushed to the repo, Github will notify the Docker Hub and it will automatically create a new image for us.

Go to Linked Accounts & Services and follow the directions.

Next, go to the Automated Builds page and click Create Auto-build Github.

From there you can find the repo you created earlier.

There are currently two bugs with the Docker Hub GUI when creating an automated build.

  1. The repository you create for the automated build must not exist on Docker Hub. For example, my Hub username is jtreminio and my repo’s name is jtreminio.com (found here). Using the GUI found here the Hub will auto-populate the fields for you, even if you already have a repo by that name! Either change the name on this page or delete your existing repo. This is on the Docker Hub, not on Github!
  2. The URL you end up in, after the GUI found here, may be incorrect! For me it generated a URL that ended with /github/form/jtreminio/jtreminio.com/?namespace=github. This silently fails when you submit the form. The ?namespace= part should actually contain your Docker Hub username! I had to change my URL to /github/form/jtreminio/jtreminio.com/?namespace=jtreminio

After you follow the instructions you will find the Docker Hub repo page now includes several more options than before, including Dockerfile, Build Details, and Build Settings.

If you go to Build Settings you can manually start your first build by clicking Trigger on the right side of the page. This may take a few minutes.

Starting your blog

Once the first build is finished on the Docker Hub we can create the initial container for our blog on our server.

SSH into your server and run the following:

NAME=jtreminio_com
HOST=jtreminio.com
IMAGE="jtreminio/jtreminio.com"
docker container run -d --name ${NAME} \
    --label traefik.backend=${NAME} \
    --label traefik.docker.network=traefik_webgateway \
    --label traefik.frontend.rule=Host:${HOST} \
    --label traefik.port=80 \
    --label com.centurylinklabs.watchtower.enable=true \
    --network traefik_webgateway \
    --restart always \
    ${IMAGE}

Make sure to change NAME, HOST and IMAGE to your own information!

A few things will now happen:

  1. The container with your website inside will start,
  2. Traefik detects this new container and automatically generates a new, free SSL certificate from Let’s Encrypt. It will continue monitoring this certificate and renew it long before it expires, all without you needing to worry about it.
  3. Watchtower takes note of this new container, but does nothing right now.

If you go to your website URL you will see your blog up and running with a brand new SSL certificate!

Watchtower

So what exactly does Watchtower do? If you run

docker container logs watchtower

you may not see anything very interesting at first. The magic happens when you make changes to your website, commit and push to Github, and after the Docker Hub automatically creates a new image of your website.

Watchtower polls the Docker Hub every few minutes to detect if any of the containers you are currently running have new image versions. Once Docker Hub finishes creating the new image with the latest changes of your website, Watchtower will automatically download the image, gracefully shut down your blog container and immediately restart it with the new image, and your new changes.

Here is what the logs show when this happens:

root@docker:/opt# docker container logs -f watchtower
time="2018-08-09T00:28:50Z" level=info msg="First run: 2018-08-09 00:33:50 +0000 UTC" 

// ...

time="2018-08-09T00:33:53Z" level=info msg="Found new jtreminio/jtreminio.com:latest image (sha256:5a8c9299091b6892753128792a6d6c90f26dd27ed10c5286b3fc8f0b8799c503)" 
time="2018-08-09T00:33:57Z" level=info msg="Stopping /jtreminio_com (ebae9539acfcedf2279115f2c19ebddaf3c34271aa5d048142c6b90d091bf987) with SIGTERM" 
time="2018-08-09T00:33:58Z" level=info msg="Creating /jtreminio_com" 

Watchtower can monitor any number of containers and is the final piece in our automated puzzle.

Wrapping up

Today you learned how to utilize free, open source tools to automate your blog deployment process.

While Docker Hub automated builds may not be suitable for more complex requirements, it can easily meet what we created today.

No more FTP, nor more pulling from repo directly from your server. Automating this boring and error-prone process helps lift a small weight off of your shoulders and lets you focus on what you enjoy doing best: writing about things you love.

Until next time, this is Señor PHP Developer Juan Treminio wishing you adios!


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