Recently on r/php there was a thread asking users about their development environments. The usual answers came tumbling out – mostly about IDEs and methods for uploading their code (side note: FTP is a horrible way to do this!). Out of 144 responses, I noticed that very few mentioned virtual machines. Most that said anything about operating systems or platforms made it clear they were developing on their local machine, with no separation between their everyday driver and their development environment.
This has got to stop, especially amongst PHP developers where we have tools like XAMPP that require nothing more than a simple zip extract to get up and running with your own “server”.
Why do you need a VM?
There are many reasons to do your development work on a virtual machine over your daily desktop:
- It separates out programs and settings from your local desktop that can interfere with the operations of a server. Did you know that if you run Skype and try to install XAMPP, the server won’t start? That’s because Skype is using port 80 for its connection, and you have to manually go in and disable this for XAMPP to work,
- It keeps server-related software out of your desktop,
- If you’re running Windows and a prepackaged server like XAMPP, you may have run into some flakiness when trying to run PEAR, or install memcache or APC, or several of the more popular PHP extensions. XAMPP is great for getting an “it just works” server up and running within minutes, but the drawbacks become too great when you want to do something more in-depth,
- The most important reason of all is that you want your development environment to mimic your production environment as closely as possible, and it’s even better if it is an exact mirror of all the programs and settings. What usually happens when you start a new job at a development company that has its act together is that you’re given a VM image to use on your computer that mimics the production server. The reasons for having your dev environment mimic prod is that it greatly reduces the chances of hearing the phrase, “It works on my computer” because now you don’t have to deal with the minor differences between software versions messing up your application. This tutorial, however, is not meant to replace such a scenario. My aim is to get you up and running a generic VM that allows you to quickly setup new, or modify existing, applications, as is the case for freelancers who have multiple clients that are running on generic webhosts.
Download the appropriate package from VirtualBox’s website and install it on your computer. All the default settings will do fine.
The VM OS we’ll be installing is Ubuntu Server 32-bit, which as of the time of this article is still version 11.10, but I have tested everything in 12.04 beta and it works the same.
We’ll using this OS for a couple of reasons:
- Ubuntu’s apt-get is great for quickly getting packages,
- For production servers, the 64-bit version is recommended, but as this is just a local server where we won’t give it the preferred 4GB of ram, the 32-bit should be fine,
- We’re using the Server edition as we have no need for the GUI
Install the VM
Open Virtualbox and hit the New button.
At the Create New Virtual Machine screen, name your VM “Ubuntu VM” and hit Next
Give your VM 1GB of RAM. If your computer has less than 6GB of RAM, you should probably lower it down to 512MB.
Click next until you reach the Virtual desk storage details page, and select “Fixed size”
Give it 20 GB of space
Virtualbox will now create the initial VM image file which may take a minute or two. When it is finished, close the process by hitting the “Create” button.
Right now you have your VM set up, but haven’t installed the actual operating system on it. To do so, simply double click on the Ubuntu VM line and click “next”.
Click the folder icon and search for your Ubuntu Server iso file, clicking next until the VM boots up and you’re presented with the Ubuntu language selection screen.
The Ubuntu installation is very straight-forward, but there are a few pages I’d like to highlight as being important.
At the hostname screen, choose what you would like to name your server. This name will be used later on to access the server via SSH and when setting up a network folder on your host machine (the desktop you use).
Continue on, making sure to hit choose the defaults for most settings, until you get to the “Partition disks” page, where you simply select Yes with your arrow keys, and hit enter
You’ll soon get another confirmation screen, follow the same steps
Make sure you disable automatic updates
And on the next page, select “OpenSSH Server”, “Mail server”, and “Samba file server” using the spacebar.
Continue choosing the defaults until installation is complete and your VM reboots.
Set up the network
Virtualbox has this great feature called Snapshots, where you can save the state of your VM at any given point in time. This is great for novices that experiment a bit and often end up with a broken server – just load up the snapshot and start off from a verified working copy!
Before we do that, though, let’s set up one small configuration.
Log in to your new VM using the username and password you chose during installation. We’re going to add a network connection to your VM that will allow you to easily SSH into the server.
$ sudo nano /etc/network/interfaces
Add the following to the end of the file:
auto eth1 iface eth1 inet static address 192.168.56.101 netmask 255.255.255.0
CTRL + X, then
ENTER to save changes.
Now shutdown the VM
$ sudo shutdown -h now
At the main VirtualBox screen, hit the settings button
Select Network from the list on the left, choose Adapter 2 from the tabs, check “Enable Network Adapter” and choose “Host-only Adapter” from the dropdown, then hit OK
What we’ve done in this section is set up your VM to use a static IP address. This is a good idea because it allows us to always access our VM using a single IP address/hostname without having to look it up each time we boot.
By default VirtualBox utilizes the
192.168.56.1 address in your network, and it
assigns IP addresses in the
192.168.56.1xx range to all your VMs.
By editing the
/etc/network/interfaces file we told Ubuntu that it should expect a
network resource to be available at that address.
Take a snapshot
As mentioned previously, Snapshots are a great way to save the current state of your VM and quickly revert back to it in case you ever screw it up.
Setting one up is extremely simple, just select the Snapshots icon in the mainscreen and CTRL + SHIFT + S to create a new Snapshot.
If you ever need to, simply come back to this screen and restore that snapshot.
Setup your hosts file
You’ve got your server configured just right, now let’s add the hostname to your hosts file!
Simply add the following entry into your hosts file.
Keep in mind that for every domain you want to setup on your VM, you’ll need to add it to your hosts file.
Log in via SSH!
Now that you have setup the network adapter in VirtualBox, and added the correct settings to the VM interfaces file, you’re ready to actually SSH into your server and begin installing everything!
You may be wondering why do you need to SSH and not simply use the VM window to do all the work? The only reason for me is that the server does not support copy/paste! There’s a lot of typing ahead and having the ability to simply copy/paste into your terminal is going to speed everything up quite a bit!
Since you’ve already added the correct lines to your hosts file, you can set the
address to connect to as
ubuntu-vm (or whatever you chose during setup).
Make sure to actually start the VM from VirtualBox before attempting to login. Just start it, there’s no need to login from the VirtualBox server window.
Installing the basics
First thing’s first, we’re going to install the basic necessities, like
wget, as well as the Apache server, Mercurial, Git and Subversion:
$ sudo apt-get install gcc make wget cron curl libxml2 libxml2-dev libzip-dev \ libbz2-dev curl libcurl4-openssl-dev libcurl3 libcurl3-gnutls libjpeg62 \ libjpeg62-dev libpng12-0 libpng12-dev libmcrypt-dev libmcrypt4 libxslt1-dev \ libxml2-dev apache2 apache2-mpm-prefork apache2-prefork-dev apache2-utils \ apache2.2-common git mercurial subversion
Edit the new Apache2 config file,
$ sudo nano /etc/apache2/httpd.conf and add
You’ll now have the Apache server up and running! Just point your browser to ubuntu-vm and behold the magic!
Let’s enable Apache’s ModRewrite module now:
$ sudo a2enmod rewrite
This module allows us to use htaccess for pretty URLs.
We’ll be installing MySQL 5.5 from repo, as this is easiest and works fairly well. Unfortunately, Ubuntu 11.10′s repo only goes up to MySQL 5.1, so we’ll add in dotdeb.org’s repos for the latest version.
Add to top of the file
$ sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb http://packages.dotdeb.org stable all deb-src http://packages.dotdeb.org stable all
$ wget http://www.dotdeb.org/dotdeb.gpg && cat dotdeb.gpg | sudo apt-key add - $ sudo apt-get update
Your system can now download MySQL 5.5!
$ sudo apt-get install mysql-client-5.5 mysql-server-5.5
On the screens asking for a MySQL password, leave it blank and hit enter. Since this is only for a local server there’s no point in setting up a password.
Setting up MySQL
We need to update the IP address that MySQL will listen to for connections by
$ sudo nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf
Do a search for
bind-address (CTRL + W) and change the setting to:
bind-address = 127.0.0.1 bind-address = 192.168.56.101
Now let’s grant the root MySQL user all permissions:
$ mysql -u root GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'root'@'%'; exit;
and restart the service:
$ sudo service mysql restart
Compiling PHP from Source
Next we’ll compile PHP from source.
The initial steps leading up to the compiling are fairly easy, we’re going to install all build dependencies that PHP5 requires and also download the actual source from php.net. I’ll be setting up PHP 5.3.11, but the steps for 5.4.1 are identical, and I’ll provide the link for it in the same code:
$ sudo apt-get build-dep php5 $ wget http://us3.php.net/get/php-5.3.11.tar.gz/from/this/mirror -O php-5.3.11.tar.gz # $ wget http://us2.php.net/get/php-5.4.1.tar.gz/from/this/mirror -O php-5.4.1.tar.gz $ tar -xzf php-*.tar.gz $ cd php-5*
Now we’ll actually compile PHP. The options shown are fairly standard and should get you up and running with most applications. This process will take a few minutes.
$ ./configure --with-apxs2=/usr/bin/apxs2 --with-config-file-path=/etc/php5 \ --with-mysql=mysqlnd --enable-inline-optimization --disable-debug \ --enable-bcmath --enable-calendar --enable-ctype --enable-ftp --with-gd \ --disable-sigchild --with-jpeg-dir=/usr --with-png-dir=/usr --with-zlib=yes \ --with-zlib-dir=/usr --with-openssl --with-xsl=/usr --with-mcrypt=/usr \ --with-mhash=/usr --enable-mbstring=all --with-curl=/usr/bin \ --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-zend-multibyte --with-bz2=/usr \ --with-iconv --with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd --enable-fileinfo --with-pear \ --enable-exif --enable-soap --with-regex --enable-zip --with-tidy \ --sysconfdir=/etc --with-gettext \ --with-freetype-dir=/usr/include/freetype2/freetype --with-libxml-dir $ make $ sudo make -i install
Create a symlink into the bin
$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/bin/php /usr/bin/php
Let the Apache web server know about PHP by first creating a conf file,
$ sudo nano /etc/apache2/mods-available/php5.conf, and adding
AddType application/x-httpd-php .php .phtml .php3 AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps
And finally enable PHP as an Apache module
$ sudo a2enmod php5
The last steps are copying over the default ini file and restarting Apache
$ sudo mkdir /etc/php5/ $ sudo cp ~/php*/php.ini-development /etc/php5/php.ini $ sudo service apache2 restart
Try it out with
$ php -v and you should get back confirmation that you’ve
successfully installed PHP.
Before moving into editing the php.ini, or adding sites to apache’s vhosts, I want to setup some simple shortcuts for quickly editing these and other files.
$ cd $ mkdir _lamp && cd _lamp $ sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/httpd.conf $ sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/default $ sudo ln -s /etc/php5/php.ini
Now whenever you want to update server-related files, just go to this _lamp folder in your home directory.
Now we’ll want to install Xdebug (because you’re using Xdebug to debug, right?)
$ cd $ git clone git://github.com/derickr/xdebug.git $ cd xdebug* $ phpize $ ./configure --enable-xdebug $ make $ sudo make install
And finally, configure our php.ini with all the extensions we’ve installed, as well as some other sane defaults
$ cd ~/_lamp $ sudo nano php.ini
To do a text search in nano, you press
CTRL + W. To go to the next search result,
CTRL + W again and just hit enter.
# ... error_reporting = -1 # ... display_errors = On
We want to use
error_reporting to get back every single error, warning
and notice possible.
date.timezone and edit:
# ... ;date.timezone = date.timezone = America/Chicago
date.timezone, add the following block:
[xdebug] zend_extension=/usr/local/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626/xdebug.so xdebug.remote_enable=1 xdebug.remote_connect_back=1 xdebug.remote_port=9000 xdebug.show_local_vars=0 xdebug.var_display_max_data=10000 xdebug.var_display_max_depth=20 xdebug.show_exception_trace=0
Exit nano by hitting
CTRL + X, type
Y to confirm and hit
Enter to exit.
Now restart Apache:
$ sudo service apache2 restart
You’ll now have the Xdebug extension installed, and all the new configuration settings changed.
To test this out, we can print out
phpinfo(), but first we need to give our user
permission to edit the webroot. Simply replace “USERNAME” with your username in the
$ sudo usermod -a -G www-data USERNAME $ sudo chown -R root:www-data /var/www $ sudo chmod -R 775 /var/www
Now go to the webroot, remove the
index.html file that is currently in there and
replace it with a PHP file:
$ cd /var/www $ rm -F index.html $ nano index.php
and enter in
Refresh your browser window, which should show your PHP’s information. Do a search
xdebug and if you find it you’ll have done everything correctly.
The following is optional, but you should really consider doing it: installing PHPUnit:
$ sudo pear config-set auto_discover 1 $ sudo pear install pear.phpunit.de/PHPUnit $ sudo pear install phpunit/DbUnit $ sudo pear install phpunit/PHPUnit_Selenium $ sudo pear install phpunit/PHPUnit_TestListener_XHProf
Setting up SAMBA
SAMBA is a great utility that allows you to access remote locations as a shared network file. This will be the way we access the files on our server for editing.
Replace USERNAME with your username:
$ sudo adduser USERNAME www-data
And edit the SAMBA config file
$ sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
[www] comment = www path = /var/www public = yes writable = yes valid users = USERNAME create mask = 0775 directory mask = 0775 force user = USERNAME force group = www-data follow symlinks = yes wide links = yes
Replace USERNAME with your username.
Set up a password:
$ sudo smbpasswd -a USERNAME
And restart SAMBA:
$ sudo service smbd restart
After it completes, you’ll now be able to access the webroot and map it as a network
drive. Just open up Windows Explorer (or the tool of your OS of choice) and go to
Setting up Apache
I like to keep all my site configurations in a single file, as opposed to creating a
separate file for each site. So let’s edit the default
$ sudo nano ~/_lamp/default
We can erase everything in here, and enter the following
<VirtualHost *:80> DocumentRoot "/var/www/" ServerName localhost ServerAlias ubuntu-vm </VirtualHost>
Every site you add can always be in this file. Just copy/paste the above, changing out the correct bits. For example, for a site called “google.dev”:
<VirtualHost *:80> DocumentRoot "/var/www/google.dev" ServerName google.dev ServerAlias www.google.dev </VirtualHost>
and restart Apache with
$ sudo service apache2 restart.
You’ve now got a fully functional, working Linux VM running independently of what you have on your daily OS.
Now only did you install Apache, PHP and MySQL, but you also set up important tools like Xdebug and PHPUnit, both of which I will be writing about in articles not too far in the future!
This magic file allows you to add eye candy to the terminal, as well as some nifty
shortcuts. Instead of having to type
$ sudo service apache2 restart you can now
$ apache restart, and much more!
Remember, there’s no shame on using Windows or Mac OS X as your operating system, but for best results you should always using a Linux VM to handle all your LAMP stuff!